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OTO Open

OTO Open


eISSN: 2473974X | ISSN: 2473974X | Current volume: 6 | Current issue: 2 Frequency: Continuous

OTO Open, the Official Open Access Journal of the American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery Foundation, is a new, peer reviewed, gold open access journal. The mission of OTO Open is to offer rapid online publication of clinically relevant information in otolaryngology–head and neck surgery (ear, nose, throat, head, and neck disorders) to facilitate the dissemination of research and to share clinically focused manuscripts and digital materials that enhance patient care.

As an open access publication, all articles are rigorously peer-reviewed, brought to publication as rapidly as possible, and freely available online immediately upon publication. Production costs are covered by Article Processing Charges (APC) paid by the author/institution/funder upon acceptance of the manuscript. This fee covers the cost of publication and ensures that the article will be freely available. There is no charge for submitting a paper to OTO Open. The final typeset and copyedited version of the article will be available online in an average of 20 working days.

The Contribution will be published under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial license (CC BY-NC) which allows others to re-use the Contribution without permission as long as the Contribution is properly referenced and the use is non-commercial

Open Access FAQs

The APC is $750 for articles cascaded from Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery.

The APC for AAO-HNSF members is $1,000.

The full APC is $1,300.

When you publish in OTO Open, you will enjoy:

  • Rigorous peer review of your research
  • Multidisciplinary audience
  • Open access format, driving high visibility for maximum global exposure
  • Prompt online publication
  • Retention of copyright under creative commons license, allowing for greater flexibility in use of research.

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

OTO Open is the official open access journal of the American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. OTO Open is an ethical, peer-reviewed, open access journal that offers rapid online publication of clinically relevant information in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (ear, nose, throat, head, and neck disorders) to facilitate the dissemination of research and to share clinically focused manuscripts and digital materials that enhance patient care.

Editor-in-Chief
John H. Krouse, MD, PhD, MBA University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Edinburg, TX, USA
Deputy Editor
Jennifer J. Shin, MD, SM Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
Allergy
J. Whit Mims, MD Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA
Endocrine Surgery
Raymond Liu Chai, MD Mount Sinai Health System, New York, NY, USA
Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Babak Givi, MD NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA
General Otolaryngology
Jennifer A. Villwock, MD University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA
General Otolaryngology and Case Reports
Chau T. Nguyen, MD Anacapa Surgical Associates, Ventura, CA, USA
Head and Neck/Skull Base Surgery
Andrew M. Coughlin, MD University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA
Jeffrey C. Liu, MD Temple University Health System, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Andrew G. Shuman, MD University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
Health Policy, Patient Safety/Quality Improvement, and Case Reports
Michael J. Brenner, MD University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
International Liaison
Mark Zafereo, MD, FACS, FACE The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA
Laryngology/Neurolaryngology
Lee M. Akst, MD Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
Otology and Neurotology
Meredith E. Adams, MD University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
Thomas L. Eby, MD University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA
Jacob Hunter, MD University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA
Pediatric Otolaryngology
Sarah N. Bowe, MD San Antonio Military Health System, San Antonio, TX, USA
John P. Dahl, MD, PhD, MBA University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA
Thomas Q. Gallagher, DO Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, USA
Sinonasal Disorders
Jivianne T. Lee, MD University of California - Los Angeles, Irvine, CA, USA
Sleep Medicine and Surgery
Ho-Sheng Lin, MD Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA
Editorial Board
Eugenia Allegra University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy
Samantha Anne, MD Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Orange, OH, USA
Erika Celis Aguilar, MD Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan, Mexico
Sady Selaimen da Costa, MD, MSc, PhD University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
Hector de la Garza Hesles, MD Hospital Angeles de Las Lomas, Huixquilucan, Mexico
Johan Jacobus Fagan, MBChB, FCS(SA) University of Cape Town, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa
Jose Florencio Lapena, MD University of the Philippines College of Medicine and Philippine General Hospital, Manila, Philippines
Ziv Gil, MD, PhD Rambam Medical Center, Haifa, Israel
Ossama Hamid, MBBCH, MS, MD Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
Sheng-Po Hao, MD, FICS School of Medicine, Fu-Jen University, New Taipei City, Taiwan
Shigeru Hirano, MD, PhD Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan
Karl Hoermann, MD Mannheim University Hospital, Mannheim, Germany
Jacob Hunter, MD University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA
Titus S. Ibekwe, MBBS, FWACS University of Abuja College of Health Sciences, Abuja, Nigeria
Lisa E. Ishii, MD, MHS Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Cockeysville, MD, USA
Elliott D. Kozin, MD Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
Helene J. Krouse, PhD, RN, CORLN School of Medicine, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Edinburg, TX, USA
Daniel B. Kuriloff, MD New York Head and Neck Institute, New York, NY, USA
Lori Lemonnier, MD Louisiana State University - Shreveport, Shreveport, LA, USA
Edward D. McCoul, MD Ochsner Clinic Foundation, New Orleans, LA, USA
Alex J. McKinlay, MD Brooke Army Medical Center, San Antonio, TX, USA
Cem Meco, MD, FEBORL-HNS Ankara University Medical School, Ankara, Turkey
Karen S. Pawlowski, PhD University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA
James M. Ruda, MD Nationwide Childrens Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA
Ahmad R. Sedaghat, MD University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA
Sanna K. Toppila-Salmi, MD, PhD Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
Tatsuya Yamasoba, MD, PhD The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
  • Clarivate Analytics: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI)
  • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
  • ProQuest
  • PubMed Central (PMC)
  • Scopus
  • This Journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics.

    This Journal recommends that authors follow the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals formulated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

    Please read the guidelines below then visit the Journal’s submission site (https://www.editorialmanager.com/oto-open) to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned. Remember you can log in to the submission site at any time to check on the progress of your paper through the peer review process.

    SAGE Publishing disseminates high-quality research and engaged scholarship globally, and we are committed to diversity and inclusion in publishing. We encourage submissions from a diverse range of authors from across all countries and backgrounds.

    Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of OTO Open will be reviewed.

    As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere. Please see our guidelines on prior publication and note that OTO Open will consider submissions of papers that have been posted on preprint servers; please alert the Editorial Office when submitting (contact details are at the end of these guidelines) and include the DOI for the preprint in the designated field in the manuscript submission system. Authors should not post an updated version of their paper on the preprint server while it is being peer reviewed for possible publication in the Journal. If the article is accepted for publication, the author may re-use their work according to the Journal's author archiving policy. If your paper is accepted, you must include a link on your preprint to the final version of your paper.

    If you have any questions about publishing with SAGE, please visit the SAGE Journal Solutions Portal.

    1. Open Access
    2. Article processing charge (APC)
    3. What do we publish?
      3.1 Aims & Scope
      3.2 Article types
      3.3 Writing your paper
      3.3.1 Make your article discoverable
    4. Editorial policies
      4.1 Peer review policy
      4.1.1 Criteria for publication
      4.1.2 Reviewer Conflicts of Interest
      4.1.3 Web of Science researcher profile

      4.2 Authorship
      4.3 Acknowledgements
      4.3.1 Third party submissions
      4.3.2 Writing assistance

      4.4 Funding
      4.5 Declaration of conflicting interests
      4.6 Research ethics and patient consent
      4.7 Clinical trials
      4.8 Reporting guidelines
      4.9 Research Data
    5. Publishing policies
      5.1 Publication ethics
      5.1.1 Plagiarism
      5.1.2 Prior publication

      5.2 Contributor's publishing agreement
    6. Preparing your manuscript
      6.1 Formatting
      6.2 Organization of complete manuscript file
      6.3 Artwork, figures and other graphics
      6.4 Supplemental material
      6.5 Reference style
      6.6 English language editing services
    7. Submitting your manuscript
      7.1 ORCID
      7.2 Information required for completing your submission
      7.3 Permissions
      7.4 Submissions not in compliance
    8. On acceptance and publication
      8.1 SAGE Production
      8.2 Online publication
      8.3 Promoting your article
    9. Further information
      9.1 Appealing the publication decision

     

    1.Open Access

    OTO Open is an open access, peer-reviewed journal. Each article accepted by peer review is made freely available online immediately upon publication, is published under a Creative Commons license and will be hosted online in perpetuity. Publication costs of the journal are covered by the collection of article processing charges which are paid by the funder, institution, or author of each manuscript upon acceptance. There is no charge for submitting a paper to the journal.

    For general information on open access at SAGE please visit the Open Access page or view our Open Access FAQs.

    2. Article processing charge (APC)

    If, after peer review, your manuscript is accepted for publication, a one-time article processing charge (APC) is payable. This APC covers the cost of publication and ensures that your article will be freely available online in perpetuity under a Creative Commons license.

    The APC is $1,300 for direct submissions from non-members.

    The APC for AAO-HNS members is $1,000.

    The APC for articles cascaded from Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery is $750.

    APC Waiver: OTO Open waives the APC for articles whose authors are based in countries listed in Group A or Group B by Research4Life. To qualify for the waiver, all authors of the paper must be based in countries listed in Group A or Group B. 

    Post-acceptance, authors will be prompted to use the SAGE Open Access Portal to complete their APC payment, select their license, and sign a contributor form. The APC is payable when a manuscript is accepted after peer review, before it is published. The APC is subject to taxes where applicable. Tax-exempt status can be indicated by providing appropriate registration numbers when payment is requested. Please see further details here.

    3. What do we publish?

    3.1 Aims & Scope

    Before submitting your manuscript to OTO Open, please ensure you have read the Aims & Scope: https://journals.sagepub.com/aims-scope/OPN.

    We invite submission of articles on topics pertaining to the science and art of medicine that help fulfill the journal’s mission of publishing contemporary, ethical, clinically relevant information in otolaryngology, head and neck surgery (ear, nose, throat, head, and neck disorders) that can be used by otolaryngologists, scientists, and clinicians to improve patient care and public health. Articles are published because of scientific merit and are not to be considered general practice standards.

    3.2 Article Types

    OTO Open publishes the types of articles defined below. When submitting your manuscript, please follow the instructions relevant to the applicable article category. Please check Section 6 for further details.

    1. Original Research

    Original, in-depth, clinical or basic science investigations that aim to change clinical practice or the understanding of a disease process. Article types include, but are not limited to, clinical trials, before-and-after studies, cohort studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional surveys, and diagnostic test assessments. Components of original research are:

    • structured Abstract of up to 250 words with the headings: Objective, Study Design, Setting, Methods, Results, and Conclusion.
    • A brief Introduction outlining the wider context that generated the study and the specific issues or hypotheses the study addresses.
    • Methods section with enough detail to ensure reproducibility of the research, including statistical methods and sample size calculation.
    • Results section that uses appropriate descriptive and analytic statistics to summarize data. For all treatment or intervention studies, include a paragraph describing all harms and adverse events encountered (if none, so state).
    • Discussion section that summarizes key findings, highlights antecedent literature on the topic, explains what the current study adds to existing knowledge, and details the strengths and limitations of the current research.
    • Manuscript length of no more than 3,000 words (from Introduction through Conclusion) and a total of 10 figures or tables. There is no limit on references.
    • Adherence to the CONSORT statement when reporting a randomized trial, including a patient flow diagram.
    • Adherence to the AAO-HNS minimal reporting standards for studies reporting audiometric data in clinical research.
    • IRB approval or exemption is required.

    2. Patient Safety/Quality Improvement (PS/QI)

    Original research aimed to improve patient safety and the quality of otolaryngology care. Topics include but are not limited to: healthcare delivery, avoiding medial errors, quality of care, comparative effectiveness research, and patient/resident education. The components of a PS/QI article are:

    • structured Abstract of up to 250 words with the headings: Objective, Methods, Results, Discussion, and Implications for Practice.
    • An Introduction outlining the explicit clinical problem and the rationale for conducting the review.
    • Methods section outlining the study design. OTO Open recognizes the unique and often subjective nature of PS/QI research and requires PS/QI studies to adhere to the Standards for Quality Improvement Reporting Excellence (SQUIRE 2.0) Guidelines.
    • Results section to include the following items appropriate for the study: initial steps of intervention with evolution over time; details of process measures/outcomes; contextual elements that interacted with the intervention; observed association between outcomes, interventions and contextual elements; unintended consequences to include benefits, cost, and failures; and details of missing data.
    • Discussion section that summarizes key findings, highlights antecedent literature on the topic, explains what the current study adds to existing knowledge, and lists potential research biases.
    • An Implications for Practice section that clarifies clinical implications, areas for future research, and helps clinicians place the PS/QI findings in appropriate context.
    • Manuscript length of no more than 4,500 words (from Introduction through Implications of Practice) and a total of 15 figures or tables. There is no limit on references.
    • List PS/QI as one of the keywords.
    • IRB approval or exemption is required.

    3. Systematic Reviews (including Meta-analyses)

    Critical assessments of literature and data sources on important clinical topics in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery. Systematic reviews that reduce bias with explicit procedures to select, appraise, and analyze studies are highly preferred over traditional narrative reviews. The review may include a meta-analysis, or statistical synthesis of data from separate, but similar, studies leading to a quantitative summary of the pooled results. Systematic reviews may not be combined with case reports. The components of a systematic review are:

    • structured Abstract of up to 250 words with the headings: Objective, Data Sources, Review Methods, Results, and Conclusion.
    • An Introduction outlining the explicit clinical problem, rationale for the intervention (if applicable), and the rationale for conducting the review.
    • Methods section that specifies the information sources, search strategy, inclusion and exclusion criteria for articles, criteria and process used for validity assessment (if none, so state), process for data abstraction, and statistical methods for summarizing data.
    • Results section that describes study selection, study characteristics, and, when applicable, uses statistical methods to summarize data and to assess heterogeneity.
    • Discussion section that summarizes key findings, makes clinical inferences based on validity, interprets results in light of the total available evidence, and lists potential biases in the review process.
    • Manuscript length of no more than 4,500 words (from Introduction through Conclusion) and a total of 15 figures or tables. There is no limit on references.
    • Adherence to the PRISMA statement, including a flow chart of article selection.

    4. State-of-the-Art Reviews 

    A narrative review article that (a) provides a comprehensive and scholarly overview of an important clinical subject, with a principal focus on developments in the past 5 years (or less), or (b) explains recent advances in science and technology that have influenced management of a condition in terms that teach relevant science to those who devote most of their time and effort to clinical endeavors, or (c) describes how the perception of an illness, diagnostic approach, or therapeutic intervention has evolved in recent years. State-of-the-art reviews may not be combined with case reports. The components of a state-of-the-art review are:

    • structured Abstract of up to 250 words with the headings: Objective, Data Sources, Review Methods, Conclusions, and Implications for Practice.
    • An Introduction outlining the explicit clinical problem and the rationale for conducting the review.
    • Methods section that briefly states how articles were identified, what data sources were used, and what criteria were applied (objective or subjective) to include or exclude articles.
    • Discussion section that summarizes key findings, organized preferably with one or more subheadings to facilitate reading.
    • An Implications for Practice section that clarifies clinical implications, areas for future research, and helps clinicians place the review findings in appropriate context.
    • Manuscript length of no more than 4,500 words (from Introduction through Conclusion) and a total of 15 figures or tables. There is no limit on references

    5. History of Otolaryngology

    Presentation of a historical piece about a leader, teacher, clinician, or event in otolaryngology that discusses how this person or event has shaped the specialty and created a legacy of excellence. History of Otolaryngology papers should contain a title page, unstructured abstract of up to 150 words, and a narrative discussing the person or event being featured. They may be authored by an individual, group, society, or committee with an important concern of interest to readers. Manuscript length: No more than 1,200 words (from Introduction through Conclusion), with up to 10 references, and a total of 3 figures or tables.

    6. Ethics in Practice

    A case-based discussion of contemporary ethical issues arising in the field of otolaryngology. Submissions should include content relevant to otolaryngologists and highlight a topic or dilemma conducive to multiple perspectives or viewpoints. Suggested topics include (but are not limited to): conflicts among clinicians/disciplines; itinerant surgery; end of life care in head and neck cancer; discrimination in the workplace; research ethics; rationing/scarce resource utilization; billing/coding ethics; trainee selection and involvement in clinical care; clinical decision-making; doctor-patient relationships; the impaired clinician. The components of an Ethics in Practice article are:

    • Succinct case presentation/description that poses a specific question or dilemma (200 words maximum). Cases may involve a specific/individual patient example or be hypothetical. Reports of actual cases must be de-identified in a HIPAA-compliant manner, and IRB approval or exemption is required. Note in the case presentation whether the case is actual or hypothetical.
    • Point that provides a reasoned perspective taking a clear position on the issue posed (900 words maximum).
    • Counterpoint that provides a reasoned perspective taking an opposing position (900 words maximum).
    • Manuscript length: No more than 2000 words total (200 for case presentation, 900 for point, and 900 for counterpoint), with up to 10 references, 1 figure, and 1 table each for the Point and Counterpoint sections. There should be no abstract.

    7. Commentaries

    Communication of a novel, scientifically based opinion or insight as an independent contribution, or regarding a manuscript published in the journal within the past 6 months. Commentaries should contain a title page, unstructured abstract of up to 150 words, and a main point and supporting discussion. They may be authored by an individual, group, society, or committee with an important concern of interest to readers. Manuscript length: No more than 900 words (from Introduction through Conclusion), with up to 10 references, and a total of 5 figures or tables.

    8. Short Scientific Communications

    Quick communication of preliminary results (including small sample studies) or scientific research that is not yet ready for presentation in full form. Such research should have the potential to stimulate communications among researchers and clinicians that may lead to new concepts and supportive work. Submissions must have a title page and an unstructured abstract of up to 150 words. Manuscript length: No more than 900 words (from Introduction through Conclusion) and a total of 3 figures or tables. There is no limit on references. IRB approval or exemption is required.

    9. Clinical Techniques and Technology

    A short report of unique or original methods for (1) surgical techniques or medical management, or (2) new devices or technology. CTT manuscripts cannot be only theoretical. They must include data on safety and outcomes in 3 or more subjects. Submissions must have a title page and an unstructured abstract of up to 150 words. Manuscript length: No more than 900 words (from Introduction through Conclusion), 5 references, and a total of 4 figures or tables. IRB approval or exemption is required.

    10. Case Reports

    Report of a truly unique, highly relevant, and educationally valuable case. Submissions should have a title page, have no abstract, and include an Introduction and Discussion. Do not combine case reports with a review of the literature. Manuscript length: No more than 700 words (from Introduction through Discussion), 5 references, and a total of 2 figures or tables. Case reports must have no more than four authors. IRB approval or exemption is required.

    11. Clinical Photographs

    Color photograph (not a picture of an x-ray) of a unique, relevant, and educationally valuable clinical entity with an accompanying discussion. The emphasis of the manuscript should clearly center on the photograph, not the case history or a literature review. Submissions must have a title page and no abstract. Manuscript length: No more than 300 words (from Introduction through Discussion), 2 figures, and 5 references. Clinical Photographs must have no more than two authors. IRB approval or exemption is required.

    12. Letters to the Editor

    Letters to the Editor regarding published material or information of timely interest. If the letter is related to a previously published article, it must be submitted within 3 months of the original publication, and those authors will be invited to reply. The letter should be titled and double-spaced, include a title page, and follow all manuscript formatting guidelines (see Formatting). It should be brief and to the point, with no more than 400 words, 5 references, and 1 figure or table.

    Table 1. Overview of the requirements for manuscript submissions to OTO Open 

    3.3 Writing your paper

    The SAGE Author Gateway has some general advice and on how to get published, plus links to further resources.

    3.3.1 Make your article discoverable

    For information and guidance on how to make your article more discoverable, visit our Gateway page on: How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online.

    Back to top

    4. Editorial policies

    4.1 Peer review policy

    All manuscripts are first assessed by an Associate Editor and the Editor in Chief. Manuscripts may be rejected at this stage without further peer review because of ethical concerns, serious design flaws, or inconsistency with the journal mission.

    Original Research and review articles are usually assessed by at least two peer reviewers. Shorter manuscripts, such as Case Reports and Commentaries, may be sent to one or more reviewers at the discretion of the editors. The journal uses single-anonymized peer reviewing. No attempt is made to mask authors’ identities from peer reviewers, but feedback to authors is anonymous unless the reviewer explicitly decides otherwise.

    Authors are provided with general and specific comments regarding their manuscript, from editorial and peer review. Based on these comments, plus personal review of the manuscript, the Editor in Chief renders an initial disposition of reject, minor revision, major revision, or accept.

    The Editor or members of the Editorial Board may occasionally submit their own manuscripts for possible publication in the Journal. In these cases, the peer review process will be managed by alternative members of the Board and the submitting Editor or Board member will have no involvement in the decision-making process.

    SAGE does not permit the use of author-suggested (recommended) reviewers at any stage of the submission process, be that through the web-based submission system or other communication. Reviewers should be experts in their fields and should be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Our policy is that reviewers should not be assigned to a paper if:

    •  The reviewer is based at the same institution as any of the co-authors

    •  The reviewer is based at the funding body of the paper

    •  The author has recommended the reviewer

    •  The reviewer has provided a personal (e.g. Gmail/Yahoo/Hotmail) email account and an institutional email account cannot be found after performing a basic Google search (name, department and institution). 

    4.1.1 Criteria for publication

    Peer reviewers are asked to consider explicitly the following 5 criteria when assessing the suitability of a manuscript for publication:

    1. Relevance to mission: Can the information in this manuscript be used to improve patient care and public health?
    2. Internal validity: Are the study design, conduct, and analysis described in a manner that is unbiased, appropriate, and reproducible?
    3. External validity: Was the study sample chosen appropriately and described in adequate detail for results to be generalized?
    4. Level of evidence: Does this manuscript significantly improve the knowledge base beyond what is already published on this topic?
    5. Ethical conduct: Is the manuscript original, approved by an institutional review board (if applicable), and unbiased with regards to conflicts of interest?

    4.1.2 Reviewer Conflicts of Interest

    Reviewers should be experts in their fields and should be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Our policy is that reviewers should not be assigned to a paper if:

    • The reviewer is based at the same institution as any of the co-authors.
    • The reviewer is based at the funding body of the paper.
    • The author has recommended the reviewer.
    • The reviewer has provided a personal (e.g., Gmail/Yahoo/Hotmail) email account and an institutional email account cannot be found after performing a basic Google search (name, department and institution).

    4.1.3 Web of Science researcher profile

    OTO Open is committed to delivering high quality, fast peer review for your paper, and as such has partnered with Web of Science researcher profiles. This is a third-party service that seeks to track, verify and give credit for peer review. Reviewers for OTO Open can opt in to claim their reviews or have them automatically verified and added to their reviewer profile. Reviewers claiming credit for their review will be associated with the relevant journal, but the article name, reviewer’s decision and the content of their review is not published on the site. For more information visit the Web of Science website.

    4.2 Authorship

    Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing authors. Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors.

    The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This is all those who:

    1. Made a substantial contribution to the concept or design of the work; or acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data,
    2. Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content,
    3. Approved the version to be published,
    4. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.

    Authors should meet the conditions of all of the points above. When a large, multicenter group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship.

    Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship, although all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section. Please refer to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines for more information on authorship.

    4.3 Acknowledgements

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.

    Any acknowledgements should appear first at the end of your article prior to your Declaration of Conflicting Interests (if applicable), any notes and your references.

    Per ICMJE recommendations, it is best practice to obtain consent from non-author contributors who you are acknowledging in your paper.

    4.3.1 Third party submissions

    Where an individual who is not listed as an author submits a manuscript on behalf of the author(s), a statement must be included in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript and in the accompanying cover letter. The statements must:

    • Disclose this type of editorial assistance – including the individual’s name, company, and level of input
    • Identify any entities that paid for this assistance
    • Confirm that the listed authors have authorized the submission of their manuscript via third party and approved any statements or declarations, e.g., conflicting interests, funding, etc.

    Where appropriate, SAGE reserves the right to deny consideration to manuscripts submitted by a third party rather than by the authors themselves.

    4.3.2 Writing assistance

    Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g., from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company, and level of input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance. It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services.

    4.4 Funding

    OTO Open requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading.  Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. 

    4.5 Declaration of conflicting interests

    It is the policy of OTO Open to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles.

    Please ensure that a ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interests’ statement is included at the end of your manuscript, after any acknowledgements and prior to the references. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’. For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations here.

    4.6 Research ethics and patient consent

    Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted according to the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki.

    Submitted manuscripts should conform to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, and all papers reporting animal and/or human studies must state in the methods section that the relevant ethics committee or institutional review board provided (or waived) approval. Please ensure that you have provided the full name and institution of the review committee, in addition to the approval number.

    For research articles, authors are also required to state in the methods section whether participants provided informed consent and whether the consent was written or verbal.

    Information on informed consent to report individual cases or case series should be included in the manuscript text. A statement is required regarding whether written informed consent for patient information and images to be published was provided by the patient(s) or a legally authorized representative. Please do not submit the patient’s actual written informed consent with your article, as this in itself breaches the patient’s confidentiality. The Journal requests that you confirm to us, in writing, that you have obtained written informed consent but the written consent itself should be held by the authors/investigators themselves, for example in a patient’s hospital record. The confirmatory letter may be uploaded with your submission as a separate file.

    Please also refer to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Protection of Research Participants.

    All research involving animals submitted for publication must be approved by an ethics committee with oversight of the facility in which the studies were conducted. The Journal has adopted the ARRIVE guidelines.

    4.7 Clinical trials

    OTO Open conforms to the ICMJE requirement that clinical trials are registered in a WHO-approved public trials registry at or before the time of first patient enrollment as a condition of consideration for publication. The trial registry name and URL, and registration number must be included at the end of the abstract.

    4.8 Reporting guidelines

    The relevant EQUATOR Network reporting guidelines should be followed depending on the type of study. For example, all randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed CONSORT flow chart as a cited figure and the completed CONSORT checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses should include the completed PRISMA flow chart as a cited figure and the completed PRISMA checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. The EQUATOR wizard can help you identify the appropriate guideline. If your research involves animals, you will be asked to confirm that you have carefully read and adhered to the ARRIVE guidelines.

    Other resources can be found at NLM’s Research Reporting Guidelines and Initiatives.

    Please see the Article Type section for examples of when to follow reporting guidelines.

    4.9 Research data

    The journal is committed to facilitating openness, transparency and reproducibility of research, and has the following research data sharing policy. For more information, including FAQs please visit the SAGE Research Data policy pages.

    Subject to appropriate ethical and legal considerations, authors are encouraged to:

    • Share your research data in a relevant public data repository
    • Include a data availability statement linking to your data. If it is not possible to share your data, use the statement to confirm why it cannot be shared.
    • Cite this data in your research

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    5. Publishing Policies

    5.1 Publication ethics

    SAGE is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the SAGE Author Gateway.

    5.1.1 Plagiarism

    OTO Open and SAGE take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the Journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarized other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.

    5.1.2 Prior publication

    If material has been previously published it is not generally acceptable for publication in a SAGE journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the SAGE Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.

    5.2 Contributor's publishing agreement

    Before publication SAGE requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. OTO Open publishes manuscripts under Creative Commons licenses. The standard license for the journal is Creative Commons by Attribution Non-Commercial (CC BY-NC), which allows others to re-use the work without permission as long as the work is properly referenced and the use is non-commercial. For more information, you are advised to visit SAGE's OA licenses page. Alternative license arrangements are available, for example, to meet particular funder mandates, made at the author’s request.

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    6. Preparing your manuscript for submission

    6.1 Formatting

    The preferred format for the text and tables is Word Doc and must be prepared following the formatting instructions below. Please ensure uploaded manuscript files can be edited.

    For all submissions:

    • Number all pages, beginning with the title page as #1.
    • Use continuous line numbering for both new and revised submissions.
    • Use only 12-point font in Arial, Times New Roman, or Century styles.
    • Double-space the manuscript (including references, figure legends, and tables) with minimum 1-inch margins.
    • Use generic drug and equipment names when possible; cite the proprietary names in parentheses after first mention, if desired. Identify equipment by manufacturer name and location.
    • State all measurements in metric units, and if desired, add English units in parentheses.
    • Do not use abbreviations in the title or abstract. When using abbreviations in the text, indicate the abbreviation parenthetically after the first occurrence and use the abbreviation alone for all subsequent occurrences.
    • Revisions should be submitted with the edited text highlighted in yellow, using the “highlight” feature of your word processing program.

    6.2 Organization of complete manuscript file

    Title Page: The title page should be submitted as the first page of the main manuscript. The title page should not be submitted as a separate file from the main manuscript text. A title page must include the following:

    • Title of the article. The title should not exceed 15 words. Identify all animal research as such in the title.
    • Authors’ full names as they wish to be published in print, highest academic degree(s) (no more than 3), institutional affiliations, and locations. The authorship information should match the data provided in the submission system
    • Designate ONE author as the corresponding author (refer to Authorship below), and provide their complete mailing address, email address, and phone/fax numbers. The corresponding author will receive all correspondence regarding the manuscript, as well as proof pages and reprint requests.
    • Disclose if the manuscript was previously presented, along with the month, day, and year of the presentation. For annual meeting submissions, you may include the date range of the meeting. Example: This article was presented at the AAO-HNSF 2021 Annual Meeting & OTO Experience, Los Angeles, CA, October 3-6, 2021.
    • Include a brief list of keywords.
    • Report potential conflicts of interest that are upcoming or existed in the past 24 months (if none, state explicitly).
    • Identify each author’s role in creating the final version of the manuscript (e.g., design, conduct, analysis, or presentation of the research). Please list each author’s full name and individual contributions separately in this format: Author Name: contributions
    • Record sponsor name or funding source; if not applicable write “none.”

    Abstract: If applicable, the abstract should be submitted on a separate page after the title page and before the main manuscript text. The abstract in text should match the abstract provided as part of the submission details. See the Section 1.2 for abstract requirements.

    Main Text: See Section 1.2 for the components by article type.

    Acknowledgments: Acknowledgments should be included at the end of the text before the references. See section 2.3.

    References: The reference list should start on a new page after the main text and acknowledgements. If any of your references are supplemental references and not cited in the main text, please include these in your supplemental files instead of in the main reference list.

    Figure and Supplemental Legends: Legends should be submitted after refence list and before any tables. Each figure and supplemental material item should have a separate legend. The legend should be less than 35 words long including the title of the figure or Supplemental file. Please do not submit legends as part of the figure files.

    Tables: Place tables after the figure legends and list of references. Tables must be submitted in Excel or Word table format and not as images.

    6.3 Artwork, figures and other graphics

    For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures, and graphs in electronic format, please visit SAGE’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines.

    Figures supplied in color will appear in color online. Please refrain from using color descriptors in figure legends.

    Figures, tables, appendices, and supplemental material should be cited in text. All items should be submitted and numbered according to citation order.

    Tables: Data appearing in tables should supplement, not duplicate, the text. Tables must be submitted in Excel or Word table format and not as images. Tables should contain at least 2 columns of data and should not list qualitative information or single-column numeric data that can be easily described in the Results section. Put tables on separate pages and number them in order of their mention in the text. Do not embed tables throughout the text. Provide a brief title for each table (not a separate legend) and define any abbreviations in the table footnotes. Tables must be no larger than 1 page (with 1-inch margins), using a minimum font size of 10. Tables larger than 1 page will count as multiple tables. Tables larger than 3 pages will be considered for publication as appendices.

    FiguresUpload each figure as its own file in Editorial Manager. Please refrain from using color descriptors in the legend. Additional figure guidelines are as follows:

    • Acceptable file types: EPS, JPEG, PDF, and TIFF.
    • Supply the original version of graphs and diagrams. For example, if you created a graph in Word or Excel, supply the original Word or Excel file. Do not save the image in a different file format.
    • Color figures are encouraged whenever possible for contrast. Color figures will appear on the website in color at no extra charge.
    • Figures composed of multiple, separate images will be counted as multiple figures.

    6.4 Supplemental material

    This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc) alongside the full-text of the article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplementary files.

    6.5 Reference style

    OTO Open adheres to the AMA Manual of Style. View the guide here to ensure your manuscript conforms to this style.

    Authors are responsible for the completeness, accuracy, and format of their references.

    • References follow the AMA Manual of Style, 11th Edition.
    • Double-space references throughout, number them in the sequence in which they appear in the text, and cite them in the text using superscript Arabic numerals.
    • Do not use “Endnotes” or similar programs for entering references.
    • List only the first 3 authors if there are more than 6 total, and add et al after the third author.
    • Abbreviate journal titles as shown in the Cumulative Index Medicus. Translate any article titles that are not in English.
    • Journal titles should be italicized.

    Examples of correct reference format:

    Journal

    Seluga KJ, Baker LL, Ojalvo IU. A parametric study of golf car and personal transport vehicle braking stability and their deficiencies. Accid Anal Prev. 2009;41:839-848.

    Book

    Dillon H. Hearing Aids. Boomerang Press; 2001.

    Chapter

    Graney DO, Rice DH. Anatomy. In: Cummings CW, Fredrickson JM, Harker LA, et al, eds. OTO Open. 3rd ed. Mosby; 1998:1059-1064.

    Internet

    Somers FL. National Golf Car Manufacturers Association issues statement following golf car safety studies (August 2008). http://www.prlog.org/10104352-national-golf-car-manufacturersassociation.... November 2, 2010.

    6.6 English language editing services

    Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using SAGE Language Services. Visit SAGE Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.

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    7. Submitting your manuscript

    OTO Open is hosted on Editorial Manager, a web based online submission and peer review system. Visit https://www.editorialmanager.com/oto-open to login and submit your article online. We recommend using the most current version of Firefox, Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, or Safari as browsers.

    IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the Journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created.

    To use Editorial Manager, you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader (a PDF reader) installed on your system. If you need to install this software, you can download the free Adobe Acrobat Reader at https://get.adobe.com/reader/. If you experience difficulty installing or using this software, contact your IT department for assistance.

    Authors should first read the User Instructions available on the Editorial Manager homepage, and then, if a first-time user, register in Editorial Manager. Please contact the Editorial Office at oto-open@entnet.org if you have any questions about Editorial Manager.

    7.1 ORCID

    As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process SAGE is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor IDORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.

    If you do not already have an ORCID ID please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.

    7.2 Information required for completing your submission

    You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. The affiliation listed in the manuscript should be the institution where the research was conducted. If an author has moved to a new institution since completing the research, the new affiliation can be included in a manuscript note at the end of the paper. At this stage, please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).

    7.3 Permissions

    Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the SAGE Author Gateway.

    7.4 Submissions not in compliance

    Submissions not in compliance with the following instructions will be returned to the author by the Editorial Office, and a corrected version should be resubmitted within 30 days.

    Revised manuscripts must follow the same instructions and should be submitted within 30 days of the revision letter date.

    Accepted manuscripts sent to the publisher (SAGE) will be typeset and proofs will then be sent electronically to the corresponding author.

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    8. On acceptance and publication

    8.1 SAGE Production

    Your SAGE Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be made available to the corresponding author via our editing portal or by email, and corrections should be made directly or notified to us promptly. Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate. Please note that if there are any changes to the author list at this stage all authors will be required to complete and sign a form authorizing the change.

    8.2 Online publication

    One of the many benefits of publishing your research in an open access journal is the speed to publication. With no page count constraints, your article will be published online in a fully citable form with a DOI number as soon as it has completed the production process. At this time it will be completely free to view and download for all.

    8.3 Promoting your article

    Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The SAGE Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice. 

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    9. Further information

    Any correspondence, queries, or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process should be sent to the OTO Open editorial office as follows:

    oto-open@entnet.org

    9.1 Appealing the publication decision

    Editors have very broad discretion in determining whether an article is an appropriate fit for their journal. Many manuscripts are declined with a very general statement of the rejection decision. These decisions are not eligible for formal appeal unless the author believes the decision to reject the manuscript was based on an error in the review of the article, in which case the author may appeal the decision by providing the Editor with a detailed written description of the error they believe occurred.

    Authors have the right to appeal editorial decisions. Appeals should be sent via e-mail to the Editorial Office at oto-open@entnet.org with concise supporting arguments to substantiate the request. The Editor in Chief may reject the appeal or agree to further review the manuscript. Reject appeals are not permitted for Case Report and Clinical Photograph submissions. Appeal decisions are final.

    If an author believes the decision regarding their manuscript was affected by a publication ethics breach, the author may contact the publisher with a detailed written description of their concern, and information supporting the concern, at publication_ethics@sagepub.com.

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