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Journal of Children's Orthopaedics

Journal of Children's Orthopaedics


eISSN: 18632548 | ISSN: 18632521 | Current volume: 16 | Current issue: 4

The Journal of Children’s Orthopaedics is the official journal of the European Paediatric Orthopaedic Society (EPOS).

It provides a forum for the advancement of the knowledge and education in paediatric orthopaedics and traumatology across geographical borders. It advocates an increased worldwide involvement in preventing and treating musculoskeletal diseases in children and adolescents.

The journal publishes high quality, peer-reviewed articles that focus on clinical practice, diagnosis and treatment of disorders unique to paediatric orthopaedics, as well as on basic and applied research. It aims to help physicians stay abreast of the latest and ever-changing developments in the field of paediatric orthopaedics and traumatology.

The journal welcomes original contributions submitted exclusively for review to the journal. This continuously published online journal is fully open access and includes the EPOS Annual Congress meeting’s abstracts.

The Journal of Children's Orthopaedics is the official journal of the European Paediatric Orthopaedics Society (EPOS). 

It provides a forum for the advancement of the knowledge and education in paediatric orthopaedics and traumatology across geographical borders. It advocates an increased worldwide involvement in preventing and treating musculoskeletal diseases in children and adolescents.
The journal publishes high quality, peer-reviewed articles that focus on clinical practices, diagnosis and treatment of disorders unique to paediatric orthopaedics, as well as on basic and applied research. It aims to help physicians stay abreast of the latest and ever-changing developments in the field of paediatric orthopaedics and traumatology. 
The journal welcomes original contributions submitted exclusively for review to the journal. This continuously published, online journal is fully open access and includes the EPOS Annual Congress meeting's abstracts.
Editors-in-Chief
Fritz Hefti Children's University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland
Shlomo Wientroub Dana Children's Hospital, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
Deputy Editor for Chinese Affairs
Federico Canavese Lille University Center, Jeanne de Flandre Hospital, Lille, France
International Editorial Board Members
Franck Accadbled Hôpital des Enfants, Toulouse, France
Matti Ahonen Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
Michael D. Aiona Shriners Hospitals for Children, Portland, OR, USA
Zaid Al-Aubaidi Al-Zahra Hospital Dubai, Dubai, UAE
Javier Albinana Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Spain
Christina Alves Hospital Pediatrico de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
Antonio Andreacchio Children's Hospital "Vittore Buzzi", Milan, Italy
Darko Anticevic Zagreb Children's Hospital, Zagreb, Croatia
Keith Baldwin Children's Hospital Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Elhanan Bar-On Schneider Children's Medical Center, Peteh Tikva, Israel
Jeremy Bauer Shriners Hospitals for Children, Portland, OR, USA
James Beaty Campbell Clinica, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN, USA
Michael J. Bell Sheffield Children's Hospital, Sheffield, UK
Mohan V. Belthur Phoenix Children's Hospital, Phoenix, AZ, USA
Michael K.D. Benson St Luke's Hospital, Oxford, UK
Ernesto Bersusky Hospital de Pediatria Garrahan, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Rainer Georg Biedermann Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria
John G. Birch Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children, Dallas, TX, USA
Oliver Birke The Sydney Children's Hospitals Network at Westmead and Randwick, Sydney, Australia
Bernd Bittersohl Heinrich-Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany
Robert Dale Blasier Arkansas Children's Hospital, Little Rock, AR, USA
Harald Boehm Orthopaedic Hospital for Children, Behandlungszentrum Aschau, Aschau, Germany
Stephanie Boehm Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital Karolinska University, Stockholm, Sweden
Reinald Brunner University Children's Hospital Basel (UKBB), Basel, Switzerland
Carlo Camathias University Children's Hospital Basel (UKBB), Basel, Switzerland
Manuel Cassiano Neves Hospital CUF Descobertas, Lisbon, Portugal
Pablo Castañeda NYU Langone, New York, NY, USA
Dimitri Ceroni University Hospital Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
Henry Chambers Rady Children's Hospital San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA
Joshua Chang Chiayi Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan
Tae-Joon Cho Seoul National University Children's Hospital, Seoul, South Korea
In Ho Choi Seoul National University Children's Hospital, Seoul, South Korea
Wang Chow Duchess of Kent Children's Hospital, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Juan Carlos Couto Center of Orthopaedic Specialitites FLENI, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Haemish Crawford Starship Children's Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand
Robert Jay Cummings Nemours Children's Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA
Peter John Cundy Women's & Children's Hospital, Adelaide, Australia
Jaroslaw Czubak Gruca Teaching Hospital, Otwock, Poland
Barry Danino Dana Children's Hospital, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
Leo Donnan Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne, Parkville, Australia
Thomas Dreher Orthopädische Universitätsklinik, Heidelberg, Germany
Deborah Eastwood Great Ormand Street Hospital for Children, London, UK
Oliver Eberhardt Olgahospital, Stuttgart, Germany
Mohammed El Sobky Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
John Emans Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
Thomas Erb University Children's Hospital Basel (UKBB), Basel, Switzerland
G. Ulrich Exner Uniklinik Balgrist, Zurich, Switzerland
Guy Fabry University Hospital Pellenberg, Pellenberg, Belgium
Sebastian Farr Orthopedic Hospital Speising, Vienna, Austria
David M. Farrington IHP Orthopediatrica, Seville, Spain
Edilson Forlin Hospital Pequeno Principe, Curitiba, Brazil
Steven Frick Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford, CA, USA
Niklaus Friederich University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland
Patricia Moraes Barros Fucs Santa Case Medical School and Hospitals Sao Paulo, Brazil
Julia F. Funk Charité -Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
Rudolf Ganger Orthopaedic Hospital Speising, Vienna, Austria
Sumeet Garg Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA
Mark S. Gaston Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Edinburgh, UK
Yael Gelfer St Georges Hospital, London, UK
Ismat Ghanem Hôtel-Dieu de France Hospital, Achrafieh Beirut, Lebanon
Charles A. Goldfarb Washington University, St Louis, MO, USA
Yair Gortzak Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel
Martin Gottliebsen Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark
Reinhard Graf Allgemeines und Orthopädisches Landeskrankenhaus, Stolzalpe, Austria
H. Kerr Graham The Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, Australia
Franz Grill Orthopaedic Hospital Speising, Vienna, Austria
Richard Henri Gross Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA
Gunner Hägglund Lund University Hospital, Lunch, Sweden
Carol Hasler University Children's Hospital, Basel, Switzerland
Hanna Bastrup Hedin Falun Hospital, Falun, Sweden
Bernhard Heimkes Dritter Orden Clinic, Munich, Germany
Yoram Hemo Dana Children's Hospital, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
William Hennrikus Penn State College of Medicine, Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USA
John Anthony Herring Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children, Dallas, TX, USA
Gamal Hosny Benha Faculty of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt
James B. Hunter Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham, UK
Ivan Hvid Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
Ernesto Ippolito University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy
Viral Jain Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati, OH, USA
Megan Johnson Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children, Dallas, TX, USA
Charles E. Johnston Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children, Dallas, TX, USA
Stanley Jones Al-Ahli Hospital, Doha, Qatar
Benjamin Joseph Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, India
André Kaelin Clinique des Grangettes, Chêne-Bougeries, Switzerland
Lori Karol Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children, Dallas, TX, USA
Hidehiko Kawabata Osaka Rehabilitation Hospital for Children, Osaka, Japan
Derek M. Kelly University of Tennessee-Campbell Clinic, Memphis, TN, USA
James F. Kennedy Our Lady's Children's Hospital, Crumlin, Dublin, Republic of Ireland
David Keret Maccabi Health Care Services, Haifa, Israel
Harry Kim Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children, Dallas, TX, USA
Garen Koloyan University Children's Hospital, Yerevan, Armenia
Joseph Ivan Krajbich Shriners Hospitals for Children, Portland, OR, USA
Rüdiger Krauspe Orthopädische Klinik, Düsseldorf, Germany
Andreas Krieg University Children's Hospital Basel (UKBB), Basel, Switzerland
Ken N. Kuo National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
Pierre Lascombes Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland
David E. Lebel University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
Wallace Lehman Hassenfeld Children's Hospital at NYU Langone, New York City, NY, USA
Thoralf Liebs Inselspital Bern, Bern, Switzerland
David G. Little The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Westmead, Australia
Kevin Little Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati, OH, USA
Randall Loder Riley Children's Hospital, Indianapolis, IN, USA
William Mackenzie Alfred I. du Pont Hospital for Children-Nemours, Wilmington, DE, USA
Susan T. Mahan Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
Hans Michael Manner Schulthess Clinic Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
Johannes Mayr Children's Hospital University, Basel, Switzerland
Terence McGuire Mater Hospital Brisbane, Brisbane, Australia
Charles T. Mehlman Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati, OH, USA
Ludwig A. Meiss University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
Matthew D. Milewski Connecticut Children's Medical Center, Farmington, CT, USA
Freeman Miller Alfred I. du Pont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE, USA
Bjarne Moeller-Madsen Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark
Guy Molenaers University Hospital Pellenberg, Pellenberg, Belgium
Fergal Monsell Bristol Children's Hospital, Bristol, UK
Vincent Mosca Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, WA, USA
Scott J. Mubarak University of California, San Diego, CA, USA
Kishore Mulpuri BC Children's Hospital, Vancouver, Canada
Yasuharu Nakashima Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
Marek Napiontek Ortop Poliklinika, Poznan, Poland
Unni G. Narayanan The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
Cornelia Neuhaus University of Basel Children's Hospital, Basel, Switzerland
Julian Nusem Griffith University, Queensland, Australia
Hakan Omeroglu TOBB University of Economics and Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey
Norman Otsuka Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, IL, USA
Dror Ovadia Dana Children's Hospital, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
Soo-Sung Park Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, Seoul, South Korea
Klaus Parsch Olgahospital, Stuttgart, Germany
Tomas Pesl Charles University, Thomayer University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic
Renata Pospischill Orthopaedic Hospital Speising, Vienna, Austria
Tamir Pritsch Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel
Brandon Ramo Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children and University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, TX, USA
Leonhard E. Ramseier Ortho Clinic Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
Andreas Roposch Great Ormand Street Hospital for Children, London, UK
S. Robert Rozbruch Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA
Erich Rutz University Children's Hospital Basel (UKBB), Basel, Switzerland
Ralph Sakkers University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
Anne Salonen Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland
Walter Samora Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA
Wudbhav N. Sankar Children's Hospital Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Ignacio Sanpera University Hospital Son Espases, University Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca, Spain
John A. Schlechter Children's Hospital of Orange County, Orange, CA, USA
Dietrich Schlenzka ORTON Orthopaedic Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
Dalia A. Sepúlveda Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Eitan N. Sergev Dana Children's Hospital, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
Perry L. Shoenecker Shriners Hospitals for Children, Portland, OR, USA
Mauricio Silva Orthopaedic Institute for Children, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Jaakko Sinikumpu Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
David L. Skaggs Children's Hospital of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Theddy Slongo Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland
Bernhard Speth University Children's Hospital Basel (UKBB), Basel, Switzerland
Daniel Studer University Children's Hospital Basel (UKBB), Basel, Switzerland
Peter Sturm Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA
Michael D. Sussman Shriners Hospitals for Children, Portland, OR, USA
Marek Synder Clinic of Orthopedic and Pediatric Orthopedics, Lodz, Poland
Terje Terjesen Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
Tim Theologis Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Oxford, UK
Cosimo Tudisco University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy
Vidyadhar Upasani Rady Children's Hospital San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA
Anja Van Campenhout University Hospital Leuven, Pellenberg, Belgium
Johannes A. van der Sluijs VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands
José B. Volpon University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preti, Brazil
Andrew Wainwright Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Oxford, UK
Stewart Walsh Starship Children's Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand
John W. Wedge Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
Daniel Weigl Schneider Children's Medical Center, Peteh Tikva, Israel
Stuart H. Weinstein University of Iowa Hospital, Iowa City, IA, USA
Dennis R. Wenger Rady Children's Hospital San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA
Bettina Westhoff University Hospital, Düsseldorf, Germany
Roger F. Widmann Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA
R. Baxter Willis Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottowa, Canada
Thomas Wirth Orthopädische Klinik, Stuttgart, Germany
James G. Wright Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
Ryosuke Yamaguchi Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
Haruhisa Yanagida Fukuoka Children's Hospital & Medical Center for Infectious Diseases, Fukuoka, Japan
Moshe Yaniv Dana Children's Hospital, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
Muharrem Yazici Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey
Reinhard D. Zeller Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
Lewis E. Zionts Orthopaedic Institute for Children and the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Manuscript Submission Guidelines: Journal of Children’s Orthopaedics

Table of Content

  1. Open Access
  2. Article processing charge (APC)
  3. What do we publish?
    3.1 Aims & Scope
    3.2 Article types
    3.3 Writing your paper
  4. Editorial policies
    4.1 Peer review policy
    4.2 Authorship
    4.3 Acknowledgements
    4.4 Funding
    4.5 Declaration of conflicting interests
    4.6 Research ethics and patient consent
    4.7 Clinical trials
    4.8 Reporting guidelines
  5. Publishing policies
    5.1 Publication ethics
    5.2 Contributor's publishing agreement
  6. Preparing your manuscript
    6.1 Formatting
    6.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics
    6.3 Identifiable information
    6.4 Supplemental material
    6.5 Reference style
    6.6 English language editing services
  7. Submitting your manuscript
    7.1 How to submit your manuscript
    7.2 Title, keywords, and abstracts
    7.3 Information required for completing your submission
    7.4 ORCID
    7.5 Permissions
  8. On acceptance and publication
    8.1 SAGE Production
    8.2 Online publication
    8.3 Promoting your article
  9. Further information
  10. Appealing the publication decision

This Journal recommends that authors follow the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals formulated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

Please read the guidelines below then visit the journal’s submission site https://mc04.manuscriptcentral.com/jco to upload your manuscript. Please note that manuscripts not conforming to these guidelines may be returned. Remember you can log in to the submission site at any time to check on the progress of your paper through the peer review process.

SAGE Publishing disseminates high-quality research and engaged scholarship globally, and we are committed to diversity and inclusion in publishing. We encourage submissions from a diverse range of authors from across all countries and backgrounds.

Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of the Journal of Children’s Orthopaedics will be reviewed. As part of the submission process you will be required to warrant that you are submitting your original work, that you have the rights in the work, that you are submitting the work for first publication in the Journal and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere and has not already been published elsewhere, and that you have obtained and can supply all necessary permissions for the reproduction of any copyright works not owned by you.

The Journal of Children’s Orthopaedics does not accept submissions of papers that have been posted on pre-print servers.

1. Open Access

The Journal of Children’s Orthopaedics is an open access, peer-reviewed journal. Each article accepted by peer review is made freely available online immediately upon publication, is published under a Creative Commons license and will be hosted online in perpetuity. Publication costs of the journal are covered by the collection of article processing charges which are paid by the funder, institution or author of each manuscript upon acceptance. There is no charge for submitting a paper to the journal.

For general information on open access at SAGE please visit the Open Access page or view our Open Access FAQs.

2. Article processing charge (APC)

If, after peer review, your manuscript is accepted for publication, a one-time article processing charge (APC) is payable. This APC covers the cost of publication and ensures that your article will be freely available online in perpetuity under a Creative Commons license.

The article processing charge (APC) for EPOS members or Editorial Board members is $1,000/€900. The cost for non-members is $2,000/€1,800. Reviewers will receive a 20% discount off their next submission upon completing a thorough review. These are for the following article types: Original Clinical Article, Technical Note, Basic Science, Perspective and Systematic Review.

The article processing charge (APC) is payable when a manuscript is accepted after peer review, before it is published. The APC is subject to taxes where applicable. Please see further details here.

Your article may be eligible for a full or partial waiver due to SAGE’s participation in initiatives aimed at increasing accessibility to publication from lower- income countries.  Check here for further information about discounts and to see whether you may be eligible: https://uk.sagepub.com/gold-open-access-article-processing-charge-waivers.

*If the paying party is based in the European Union, to comply with European law, value added tax (VAT) must be added to the APC. Providing a VAT registration number will allow an institution to be exempt from paying this tax, except for UK institutions.

3. What do we publish?

3.1 Aims & Scope

Before submitting your manuscript to the Journal of Children’s Orthopaedics, please ensure you have read the Aims & Scope.

3.2 Article Types

Articles are accepted for exclusive publication in the Journal of Children’s Orthopaedics and must not be previously published or under consideration elsewhere.

The Journal of Children’s Orthopaedics does not accept and will withdraw from consideration any manuscript submissions that have been posted to Preprint Servers prior to submission.

The Journal of Children’s Orthopaedics considers the following article types:

  • Original Clinical Article: The abstract should be structured into Purpose, Methods, Results and Conclusions and be limited to a maximum of 250 words. The full article should be no more than 4,000 words.
  • Technical Note
  • Basic Science
  • Perspective
  • Systematic Review: See 3.2.2. The abstract should be structured into Purpose, Methods, Results and Conclusions and be limited to a maximum of 250 words. The full article should be no more than 4,000 words.
  • Editorial
  • Letter to the Editor: Correspondence to the Editor unrelated to a specific article should not exceed 500 words or have more than 3 references. Correspondence pertaining to a recently published article or to be published concurrently with an article within the journal should not exceed 800 words or have more than 5 references.
  • Response to Letter to the Editor
  • Book Review
  • Current Concepts Review (by Editor-in-Chief invitation only)

Please note that the Journal of Children’s Orthopaedics does not accept case reports for consideration.

References should be kept to a minimum, comprising only works that have been studied in full by the authors, and should only cite published work.

Please visit our SAGE Author Gateway for guidance on producing visual and/or video abstracts.

3.2.1 Level of Evidence

Level of Evidence must be stated for all Original Clinical Articles, Systematic Reviews and Technical Notes. It is optional for all other article types. Select the Level of Evidence appropriate for your work from the chart below and list this underneath the abstract.

  1. A complete assessment of the quality of individual studies requires critical appraisal of all aspects of the study design
  2. A combination of results from two or more prior studies
  3. Studies provided consistent results
  4. Study was started before the first patient enrolled
  5. Patients treated one way (e.g. with cemented hip arthroplasty) compared with patients treated another way (e.g. with cementless hip arthroplasty) at the same institution
  6. Study was started after the first patient enrolled
  7. Patient identified for the study on the basis of their outcome (e.g., failed total hip arthroplasty), called “cases” are compared with those who did not have the outcome (e.g., had a successful total hip arthroplasty), called “controls”
  8. Patients treated one way with no comparison group of patients treated another way.

This chart was adapted from material published by the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, Oxford, UK. For more information please see www.cebm.net

3.2.2 Systematic reviews

Systematic Reviews must meet the requirements of the PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Authors are required to complete the PRISMA checklist and submit this with their manuscript. You can find the checklist here. Authors should include a statement such as below in the abstract and the 'Materials & Methods' section of their manuscript:

‘The review process was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines.’

Although not an obligatory requirement, the journal encourages registration of Systematic Reviews with PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews). If registered, authors should include the registration number in the abstract and the 'Materials & Methods' section of their manuscript.

The maximum lag time between the end of the systematic review search period and submission of the manuscript is 12 months. Manuscripts exceeding this time limit will be returned without peer-review. Exceptions are made for manuscripts reporting on rare diseases where the most recent literature might already be several years old. In such a case, authors should mention the end date of their search period in their manuscript.

3.3 Writing your paper

The SAGE Author Gateway has some general advice and on how to get published, plus links to further resources.

3.3.1 Make your article discoverable

For information and guidance on how to make your article more discoverable, visit our Gateway page on: How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online.

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4. Editorial policies

4.1 Peer review policy

Following a preliminary triage to eliminate submissions unsuitable for the Journal of Children’s Orthopaedics all papers are sent out for review. The covering letter is important. To help the Editor in their preliminary evaluation, please indicate why you think the paper suitable for publication. If your paper should be considered for fast-track publication, please explain why.

SAGE does not permit the use of author-suggested (recommended) reviewers at any stage of the submission process, be that through the web-based submission system or other communication.

Reviewers should be experts in their fields and should be able to provide an objective assessment of the manuscript. Our policy is that reviewers should not be assigned to a paper if:

  • The reviewer is based at the same institution as any of the co-authors.
  • The reviewer is based at the funding body of the paper.
  • The author has recommended the reviewer.
  • The reviewer has provided a personal (e.g. Gmail/Yahoo/Hotmail) email account and an institutional email account cannot be found after performing a basic Google search (name, department and institution).

The journal’s policy is to have manuscripts reviewed by at least two expert reviewers. The Journal of Children’s Orthopaedics utilizes a double-anonymize peer review process in which the reviewer and authors’ names and information are withheld from the other. Reviewers may at their own discretion opt to reveal their names to the author in their review, but our standard policy practice is for their identities to remain concealed. All manuscripts are reviewed as rapidly as possible, while maintaining rigor. Reviewers make comments to the author and recommendations to the Editors-in-Chief who then makes the final decision.

The Editor or members of the Editorial Board may occasionally submit their own manuscripts for possible publication in the journal. In these cases, the peer review process will be managed by alternative members of the Board and the submitting Editor / Board member will have no involvement in the decision-making process.

The Journal of Children’s Orthopaedics is committed to delivering high quality, fast peer-review for your paper, and as such has partnered with Publons. Publons is a third party service that seeks to track, verify and give credit for peer review. Reviewers for Journal of Children’s Orthopaedics   can opt in to Publons in order to claim their reviews or have them automatically verified and added to their reviewer profile. Reviewers claiming credit for their review will be associated with the relevant journal, but the article name, reviewer’s decision and the content of their review is not published on the site. For more information visit the Publons website.

4.2 Authorship

We only accept papers with a maximum of 8 authors (except for multicenter studies with more than 4 centers).  Papers should only be submitted for consideration once consent is given by all contributing authors. Those submitting papers should carefully check that all those whose work contributed to the paper are acknowledged as contributing authors.

The list of authors should include all those who can legitimately claim authorship. This is all those who:

  1. Made a substantial contribution to the concept or design of the work; or acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data,
  2. Drafted the article or revised it critically for important intellectual content,
  3. Approved the version to be published,
  4. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.

Authors should meet the conditions of all of the points above. When a large, multicentre group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship.

Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship, although all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the Acknowledgments section. Please refer to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) authorship guidelines for more information on authorship.

4.3 Acknowledgements

All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, or a department chair who provided only general support.

Please supply any personal acknowledgements separately to the main text to facilitate anonymous peer review.

Per ICMJE recommendations, it is best practice to obtain consent from non-author contributors who you are acknowledging in your paper.

4.3.1 Third party submissions

Where an individual who is not listed as an author submits a manuscript on behalf of the author(s), a statement must be included in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript and in the accompanying cover letter. The statements must:

  • Disclose this type of editorial assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input

  • Identify any entities that paid for this assistance

  • Confirm that the listed authors have authorized the submission of their manuscript via third party and approved

Where appropriate, SAGE reserves the right to deny consideration to manuscripts submitted by a third party rather than by the authors themselves.

4.3.2 Writting Assistance

Individuals who provided writing assistance, e.g. from a specialist communications company, do not qualify as authors and so should be included in the Acknowledgements section. Authors must disclose any writing assistance – including the individual’s name, company and level of input – and identify the entity that paid for this assistance. It is not necessary to disclose use of language polishing services.

4.4 Funding

The Journal of Children’s Orthopaedics requires all authors to acknowledge their funding in a consistent fashion under a separate heading.  Please visit the Funding Acknowledgements page on the SAGE Journal Author Gateway to confirm the format of the acknowledgment text in the event of funding, or state that: This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. 

4.5 Declaration of conflicting interests

It is the policy of  the Journal of Children’s Orthopaedics to require a declaration of conflicting interests from all authors enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated pages of all published articles.

Please ensure that a ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interests’ statement is included at the end of your manuscript, after any acknowledgements and prior to the references. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’.

For guidance on conflict of interest statements, please see the ICMJE recommendations.

4.6 Research ethics and patient consent

Medical research involving human subjects must be conducted according to the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki.

Submitted manuscripts should conform to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, and all papers reporting animal and/or human studies must state in the methods section that the relevant Ethics Committee or Institutional Review Board provided (or waived) approval. Please ensure that you have provided the full name and institution of the review committee, in addition to the approval number.

For research articles, authors are also required to state in the methods section whether participants provided informed consent and whether the consent was written or verbal.

Information on informed consent to report individual cases or case series should be included in the manuscript text. A statement is required regarding whether written informed consent for patient information and images to be published was provided by the patient(s) or a legally authorized representative. Please do not submit the patient’s actual written informed consent with your article, as this in itself breaches the patient’s confidentiality. The Journal requests that you confirm to us, in writing, that you have obtained written informed consent but the written consent itself should be held by the authors/investigators themselves, for example in a patient’s hospital record. The confirmatory letter may be uploaded with your submission as a separate file.

Please also refer to the ICMJE Recommendations for the Protection of Research Participants

4.7 Clinical trials

The Journal of Children’s Orthopaedics conforms to the ICMJE requirement that clinical trials are registered in a WHO-approved public trials registry at or before the time of first patient enrolment as a condition of consideration for publication. The trial registry name and URL, and registration number must be included at the end of the abstract.

Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) must adhere to the CONSORT statement, (CONsolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials) and submissions must be accompanied by a completed CONSORT checklist (uploaded as a Supplemental File for Review). Further information can be found at www.consort-statement.org.

4.8 Reporting guidelines

The relevant EQUATOR Network reporting guidelines should be followed depending on the type of study. For example, all randomized controlled trials submitted for publication should include a completed CONSORT flow chart as a cited figure and the completed CONSORT checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses should include the completed PRISMA flow chart as a cited figure and the completed PRISMA checklist should be uploaded with your submission as a supplementary file. The EQUATOR wizard can help you identify the appropriate guideline.

Other resources can be found at NLM’s Research Reporting Guidelines and Initiatives.

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5. Publishing Policies

5.1 Publication ethics

SAGE is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on Publication Ethics’ International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page on the SAGE Author Gateway.

5.1.1 Plagiarism

Journal of Children’s Orthopaedics and SAGE take issues of copyright infringement, plagiarism or other breaches of best practice in publication very seriously. We seek to protect the rights of our authors and we always investigate claims of plagiarism or misuse of published articles. Equally, we seek to protect the reputation of the journal against malpractice. Submitted articles may be checked with duplication-checking software. Where an article, for example, is found to have plagiarised other work or included third-party copyright material without permission or with insufficient acknowledgement, or where the authorship of the article is contested, we reserve the right to take action including, but not limited to: publishing an erratum or corrigendum (correction); retracting the article; taking up the matter with the head of department or dean of the author's institution and/or relevant academic bodies or societies; or taking appropriate legal action.

5.1.2 Prior publication

If material has been previously published it is not generally acceptable for publication in a SAGE journal. However, there are certain circumstances where previously published material can be considered for publication. Please refer to the guidance on the SAGE Author Gateway or if in doubt, contact the Editor at the address given below.

5.2 Contributor's publishing agreement

Before publication SAGE requires the author as the rights holder to sign a Journal Contributor’s Publishing Agreement. The Journal of Children’s Orthopaedics publishes manuscripts under Creative Commons licenses. The standard license for the journal is Creative Commons by Attribution Non-Commercial (CC BY-NC), which allows others to re-use the work without permission as long as the work is properly referenced and the use is non-commercial. For more information, you are advised to visit SAGE's OA licenses page. Alternative license arrangements are available, for example, to meet particular funder mandates, made at the author’s request. 

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6. Preparing your manuscript

6.1 Formatting

The preferred format for your manuscript is Word. LaTeX files are also accepted. Word and (La)Tex templates are available on the Manuscript Submission Guidelines page of our Author Gateway.

6.2 Artwork, figures and other graphics

For guidance on the preparation of illustrations, pictures and graphs in electronic format, please visit SAGE’s Manuscript Submission Guidelines  

Figures supplied in color will appear in color online.

6.3 Identifiable information

Where a journal uses double-anonymize peer review, authors are required to submit:

  1. A version of the manuscript which has had any information that compromises the anonymity of the author(s) removed or anonymised. This version will be sent to the peer reviewers.
  2. A separate title page which includes any removed or anonymised material. This will not be sent to the peer reviewers.

See https://sagepub.com/Manuscript-preparation-for-double-anonymize-journal for detailed guidance on making an anonymous submission.

6.4 Supplemental material

This journal is able to host additional materials online (e.g. datasets, podcasts, videos, images etc) alongside the full-text of the article. For more information please refer to our guidelines on submitting supplementary files.

6.5 Reference style

The Journal of Children’s Orthopaedics  adheres to the SAGE Vancouver reference style. View the SAGE Vancouver guidelines to ensure your manuscript conforms to this reference style.

If you use EndNote to manage references, you can download the SAGE Vancouver EndNote output file.

6.6 English language editing services

Authors seeking assistance with English language editing, translation, or figure and manuscript formatting to fit the journal’s specifications should consider using SAGE Language Services. Visit SAGE Language Services on our Journal Author Gateway for further information.

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7. Submitting your manuscript

7.1 How to submit your manuscript

The Journal of Children’s Orthopaedics is hosted on SAGE Track, a web based online submission and peer review system powered by ScholarOne™ Manuscripts. Visit https://mc04.manuscriptcentral.com/jco to login and submit your article online.

IMPORTANT: Please check whether you already have an account in the system before trying to create a new one. If you have reviewed or authored for the journal in the past year it is likely that you will have had an account created.  For further guidance on submitting your manuscript online please visit ScholarOne Online Help.

7.2 Title, keywords and abstracts

Please supply a title, short title, an abstract and keywords to accompany your article. The title, keywords and abstract are key to ensuring readers find your article online through online search engines such as Google. Please refer to the information and guidance on how best to title your article, write your abstract and select your keywords by visiting the SAGE Journal Author Gateway for guidelines on How to Help Readers Find Your Article Online.

7.3 Information required for completing your submission

You will be asked to provide contact details and academic affiliations for all co-authors via the submission system and identify who is to be the corresponding author. These details must match what appears on your manuscript. The affiliation listed in the manuscript should be the institution where the research was conducted. If an author has moved to a new institution since completing the research, the new affiliation can be included in a manuscript note at the end of the paper. At this stage please ensure you have included all the required statements and declarations and uploaded any additional supplementary files (including reporting guidelines where relevant).

Upload a separate “Title Page” at step 6 of the online file upload procedure, that includes the paper title, author name(s), abstract, key words, affiliation(s), professional biography (less than 100 words), acknowledgements (and any other identifying information) as you would like them to appear in the final, published article. 

7.4 ORCID

As part of our commitment to ensuring an ethical, transparent and fair peer review process SAGE is a supporting member of ORCID, the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. ORCID provides a unique and persistent digital identifier that distinguishes researchers from every other researcher, even those who share the same name, and, through integration in key research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, supports automated linkages between researchers and their professional activities, ensuring that their work is recognized.

The collection of ORCID iDs from corresponding authors is now part of the submission process of this journal. If you already have an ORCID iD you will be asked to associate that to your submission during the online submission process. We also strongly encourage all co-authors to link their ORCID ID to their accounts in our online peer review platforms. It takes seconds to do: click the link when prompted, sign into your ORCID account and our systems are automatically updated. Your ORCID iD will become part of your accepted publication’s metadata, making your work attributable to you and only you. Your ORCID iD is published with your article so that fellow researchers reading your work can link to your ORCID profile and from there link to your other publications.

If you do not already have an ORCID iD please follow this link to create one or visit our ORCID homepage to learn more.

7.5 Permissions

Please also ensure that you have obtained any necessary permission from copyright holders for reproducing any illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. For further information including guidance on fair dealing for criticism and review, please see the Copyright and Permissions page on the SAGE Author Gateway.

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8. On acceptance and publication

If your paper is accepted for publication after peer review, you will first be asked to complete the contributor’s publishing agreement. Once your manuscript files have been checked for SAGE Production, the corresponding author will be asked to pay the article processing charge (APC) via a payment link. Once the APC has been processed, your article will be prepared for publication and can appear online within an average of 30 days. Please note that no production work will occur on your paper until the APC has been received.

8.1 SAGE Production

Your SAGE Production Editor will keep you informed as to your article’s progress throughout the production process. Proofs will be made available to the corresponding author via our editing portal SAGE Edit or by email, and corrections should be made directly or notified to us promptly. Authors are reminded to check their proofs carefully to confirm that all author information, including names, affiliations, sequence and contact details are correct, and that Funding and Conflict of Interest statements, if any, are accurate. Please note that if there are any changes to the author list at this stage all authors will be required to complete and sign a form authorising the change.

8.2 Online publication

One of the many benefits of publishing your research in an open access journal is the speed to publication. With no page count constraints, your article will be published online in a fully citable form with a DOI number as soon as it has completed the production process. At this time it will be completely free to view and download for all.

8.3 Promoting your article

Publication is not the end of the process! You can help disseminate your paper and ensure it is as widely read and cited as possible. The SAGE Author Gateway has numerous resources to help you promote your work. Visit the Promote Your Article page on the Gateway for tips and advice. 

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9. Further information

Any correspondence, queries or additional requests for information on the manuscript submission process should be sent to the Journal of Children’s Orthopaedics editorial office:

philippa.stevens@sagepub.co.uk

10. Appealing the publication decision

Editors have very broad discretion in determining whether an article is an appropriate fit for their journal. Many manuscripts are declined with a very general statement of the rejection decision. These decisions are not eligible for formal appeal unless the author believes the decision to reject the manuscript was based on an error in the review of the article, in which case the author may appeal the decision by providing the Editor with a detailed written description of the error they believe occurred.

If an author believes the decision regarding their manuscript was affected by a publication ethics breach, the author may contact the publisher with a detailed written description of their concern, and information supporting the concern, at publication_ethics@sagepub.com